Osteoporosis And Exercise

Preventing And Reversing Osteoporosis Through Exercise

Tag: surgery

What Is Hyperthyroidism And Hypothyroidism

The terms hyper and hypo are Latin for too much or above (hyper) and too little or below (hypo). (Think of hypodermic, which means below the skin). Knowing this, may make it easier to understand the difference between hyperthyroidism (too much / above) thyroid hormone and hypo (too little / below) thyroid hormone. So, Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too little hormone and so it doesn’t function well, leading to weight gain, tiredness, sluggishness, memory problems, muscle aches, cramps and weakness, constipation and feeling cold, for instance. It can also cause irregular or heavy periods in women of child-bearing age.

http://osteoporosisandexercise.com/Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, which can cause a swelling in the neck (goitre) and lead to increased heart rate and palpitations, mood swings, feelings of irritability, anxiety and nervousness, weight loss, excessive sweating and feeling too hot.

The thyroid is the butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck and forms part of the endocrine system – see the pink area in the neck in the diagram.

Effect On Osteoporosis

Untreated hyperthyroidism if allowed to go on for a prolonged period or over-treated hypothyroidism can both lead to osteoporotic fractures if the patient falls. Primary hyperparathyroidism can also be a cause of osteoporosis.

Causes of Hypothyroidism

There are several causes of hypothyroidism, one of which is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is an autoimmune disease. For people diagnosed with hypothyroidism they will receive a treatment plan that usually involves taking medication to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more hormone.

Iodine deficiency, that is not having enough iodine in your diet, can be a cause of hypothyroidism because iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, so you might wonder is iodine good for hypothyroidism? In developed countries such as the Western world, the answer is a definite “NO”. In these countries, iodine is already added to certain foods, such as salt, so there is likely to be enough iodine available in a normal diet. And of course, if lack of iodine is not the cause of hypothyroidism, then taking extra iodine will not help and for some people may even make them worse.

Treatment Of Hyperthyroidism

Surgery is an option for treating an overactive thyroid gland. This removes part of the thyroid gland in the neck. This may allow it to produce a more normal level of thyroid hormone or it may be necessary to top up the level of naturally produced thyroid hormone with medication.

Hyperparathyroidism And Osteoporosis


The four tiny parathyroid glands are situated in your neck, behind the thyroid gland. They make parathyroid hormone, which helps to keep a steady level of calcium in your body. Calcium is important, not only for your bones and teeth but also for muscles and nerves. Hyperparathyroidism means you have too much (hyper) parathyroid hormone in your bloodstream. This is probably because one or more of the parathyroid glands is too active.

There are two kinds of hyperparathyroidism. Primary hyperparathyroidism happens because one of the parathyroid glands gets bigger and produces more hormone. This extra amount of hormone means there is extra calcium in the bloodstream. This can cause a number of problems, including confusion and kidney stones. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually treated by surgery to remove the enlarged gland.

The other kind of hyperparathyroidism is called secondary. It happens because some other problem reduces the level of calcium in the body, so the parathyroid glands step up production of the hormone to put more calcium in the bloodstream. They get this calcium from the bones, weakening them.

Hyperparathyroidism is a “silent” disease because it is often diagnosed before symptoms appear.

The word is a mouthful — hyperparathyroidism — but it stands for a series of symptoms that can make life uncomfortable. It can be frightening as well, especially when the body seems to be changing on its own and where the person experiencing the transformations might be wondering if they will ever have their body and mind back.

Symptoms are fairly general but uncomfortable. They include nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, and even kidney stones. Excess calcium in the bloodstream can also cause mental confusion, leading to a diagnosis of dementia, although this is entirely treatable. Surgery is one course of treatment, but medication therapy and monitoring start out the process. Treatment aims to stop calcium being released from the bones, preventing osteoporosis and relieving the uncomfortable symptoms that arise from too much blood calcium. Kidney stones are a possible side effect because the release of calcium from the bones leads to an increase of phosphate which is got rid of by the kidneys. (Bones are made of calcium phosphate.)

Calcium is a mineral (think “chalk”) that affects body functions such as bone formation, the release of hormones and even muscle, brain, and nervous system functioning. The parathyroid hormone influences calcium absorption, release from the body, and its release into the system from the bones.

The Types Of Hyperparathyroidism
One of two types of hyperparathyroidism could be the culprit for putting too much calcium into the blood stream. In the primary variety, the parathyroid glands enlarge to overproduce parathyroid hormone to cause hypercalcemia (too much calcium). Surgeons can go in and remove one or more of the four glands to force regulation of the hormone after checking whether one or more of these glands is over active.

In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the gland appears to under-produce calcium and then increase its production too much. This is secondary to an underlying disease that does not originate in the parathyroid gland.

Medication therapy inhibits the loss of calcium from the bones, and may include the use of Vitamin D which is good for bone health. Other medications may work to thwart high calcium levels.

Management And Monitoring
Once the elevated calcium levels are noted, medication is usually prescribed, along with a strong suggestion to increase physical activity, and monitoring of disease progression. Bone density tests, creatinine, and calcium levels will be monitored.

Surgery for Hyperparathyroidism
Surgery is the best option for high calcium levels that continue despite lifestyle changes. Surgery is also indicated if kidney stones are present, or where bone fractures and osteoporosis occur.

In this case, it is key to find a surgeon who is adept at reaching the tiny glands in the neck without harming the vocal chords, the airway, or any main arteries or veins. So if the problem is only a small one, your doctor may advise waiting to see whether medication is sufficient to keep the matter in check.

There are two forms of surgery. The traditional one requires a large incision. It takes longer to heal from this, and can cause hoarseness of the voice. The other is called mini parathyroid surgery. This is minimally invasive but requires a surgeon with a great deal of specialized experience. Its plus side is that it saves the patient from potential harm by targeting the parathyroid location, without cutting open the entire neck and recovery is much quicker.

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